Urologists diagnose and treat diseases of the urinary tract in both men and women. They also diagnose and treat anything involving the reproductive tract in men.
In some cases, they may perform surgery. For example, they may remove cancer or open up a blockage in the urinary tract.
The urinary tract is the system that creates, stores, and removes urine from the body. Urologists can treat any part of this system. This includes the:
- Kidneys, which are the organs that filter waste out of the blood to produce urine.
- Ureters, which are the tubes through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder
- Bladder, which is the hollow sac that stores urine
- Urethra, which is the tube through which urine travels from the bladder out of the body
- Adrenal glands, which are the glands located on top of each kidney that release hormones
Urologists also treat all parts of the male reproductive system. This system is made up of the:
- Penis, which is the organ that releases urine and carries sperm out of the body
- Prostate, which is the gland underneath the bladder that adds fluid to sperm to produce semen
- Testicles, which are the two oval organs inside the scrotum that make the hormone testosterone and produce sperm
Urologists treat a wide variety of conditions that affect the urinary system and male reproductive system.
In men, urologists treat:
- cancers of the bladder, kidneys, penis, testicles, and adrenal and prostate glands
- prostate gland enlargement
- erectile dysfunction, or trouble getting or keeping an erection
- interstitial cystitis, also called painful bladder syndrome
- kidney diseases
- kidney stones
- prostatitis, which is inflammation of the prostate gland
- urinary tract infections (UTIs)
- varicoceles, or enlarged veins in the scrotum
In women, urologists treat:
- Bladder prolapse, or the dropping of the bladder into the vagina
- cancers of the bladder, kidneys, and adrenal glands
- interstitial cystitis
- kidney stones
- overactive bladder
- urinary incontinence
In children, urologists treat:
- blockages and other problems with the urinary tract structure
- undescended testicles
Tests to find out what condition you have:
- Imaging tests, such as a CT scan, MRI scan, or ultrasound, allow them to see inside your urinary tract.
- They can order a cystogram, which involves taking X-ray images of your bladder.
- Your urologist can perform a cystoscopy. This involves using a thin scope called a cystoscope to see the inside of your urethra and bladder.
- They can perform a post-void residual urine test to find out how fast urine leaves your body during urination. It also shows how much urine is left in your bladder after you urinate.
- They can use a urine sample to check your urine for bacteria that cause infections.
- They can perform urodynamic testing to measure the pressure and volume inside your bladder.
Urologists are also trained to perform different types of surgery. This may include performing:
- biopsies of the bladder, kidneys, or prostate
- A cystectomy, which involves removing the bladder, to treat cancer
- Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, which involves breaking up kidney stones so they can remove them more easily
- A kidney transplant, which involves replacing a diseased kidney with a healthy one
- A procedure to open a blockage
- A repair of damage due to injury
- A repair of urinary organs that aren’t well-formed
- A prostatectomy, which involves removing all or part of the prostate gland to treat prostate cancer
- A sling procedure, which involves using strips of mesh to support the urethra and keep it closed to treat urinary incontinence
- A transurethral resection of the prostate, which involves removing excess tissue from an enlarged prostate
- A transurethral needle ablation of the prostate, which involves removing excess tissue from an enlarged prostate
- A ureteroscopy, which involves using a scope to remove stones in the kidneys and ureter
- A vasectomy to prevent pregnancy, which involves cutting and tying the vas deferens, or the tube sperm travel through to produce semen