Cirrhosis is a disease in which scar tissue replaces normal liver tissue. The scar tissue grows when your liver is damaged repeatedly over time.
Severe cirrhosis that goes on for a long time can cause several problems:
Liver failure causes many serious complications:
Portal hypertension causes blood to back up in the veins connected to the liver. These veins may enlarge and twist. The veins at the lower end of the esophagus, in the stomach, or in the rectum may be affected. Enlarged, twisted veins are fragile and prone to bleeding, so you may:
If you bleed slowly and it continues for a long time, you may have a low blood count (anemia). If you bleed rapidly, your blood pressure may become dangerously low (shock). You may even die.
The most common causes of cirrhosis include:
Many people with cirrhosis don't have any symptoms for years.
When you do get symptoms, they can include:
If your cirrhosis is caused by alcohol or a long-term liver disorder, you may also have:
Your doctor will suspect you have cirrhosis if you drink too much or have hepatitis and have some of the symptoms listed above. To tell if you have cirrhosis, doctors will:
A liver biopsy (in which a small piece of the liver is removed to look at under a microscope) may be needed if the other tests aren't clear.
If you have cirrhosis, your doctor will do an ultrasound every 6 months to check for liver cancer.
There is no cure for cirrhosis. The liver damage is permanent. Doctors will treat your symptoms. You can also help keep the cirrhosis from getting worse by doing the following:
If you have portal hypertension and enlarged, twisted veins in your esophagus (the tube that connects your throat to your stomach), doctors may:
If those things don't work, your doctor may put a thin plastic tube in the veins of your liver to re-route the blood and lower the pressure. This is called a TIPS procedure.
If your liver is very bad and barely working, you may need a liver transplant (surgery to replace your bad liver with a healthy one). Because alcohol will damage your new liver too, doctors usually do a transplant only if you have stopped drinking.